CSS 3 introduces several new styles that were not previously available in previous versions. The rounded borders you can add to tables or div tags are a fantastic new class styling attribute. The “border-radius” attribute specifies the roundness of a border’s depth.

The gradient attribute is another popular change. Within a specified tag, a gradient style will set a subtle change from one color to the next. When you want to set a gradient in the background of your web pages, you can use one of these gradients. Best Web Development Company in Chennai typically uses a gradient from the top to the bottom of the page. Gradients can also be set within buttons in your top-of-the-page navigation. The gradient styles give your buttons a three-dimensional appearance.

Finally, the shadowing effect is a common CSS 3 attribute. Shadows also add depth and a three-dimensional feel to your buttons, text, or div tags. Because your design is an important part of the user interface for your pages, staying up to date on the latest designs will help you keep your pages looking fresh.

A Look at the New CSS Styles

Knowing the new CSS 3 style names and values isn’t enough. You must also understand how to use them. Let’s start with the border-radius attribute.

Borders were not usually rounded in older HTML and CSS styles, but new web design styles require rounded borders. Previously, you had to create images that rounded the edges of a div or table. This made it difficult for designers to align border images with other parts of the page. You can now simply use CSS with your HTML tags. Tables are less common, so we’ll use a div tag as an example.

The following code is a CSS style that affects all div HTML elements on a page.

div {

    border: 1px solid;

    border-radius: 20px;

 }

The div selector is used first in the preceding CSS, indicating that all div elements are affected. The declarations are written in the next two lines of code. The first “border” property adds a 1-pixel border around the div. All div elements have a border, but it is hidden by default. This declaration essentially draws the border and places it on the page. The “solid” value instructs the browser to simply draw a solid line around the div. You can also use dotted lines of varying lengths to surround an element.

The radius is the next declaration. Most designers must experiment with the radius pixels to achieve the desired rounded appearance. The higher the value, the more rounded the border on all sides will be.

Gradient styles begin with the first color code (in HTML hex notation) and gradually transition to the second color across the element or page. You’ve probably seen this gradient attribute style in action without even realizing it if you’ve ever looked at current web design. To create a gradual 3D effect, you usually use a color that is similar to the first, but you can use two completely different colors in your CSS and HTML code. You can also make a linear gradient or a radial gradient. A linear gradient changes the color in a straight line from one point to the next. A radial gradient produces a circular shift in color.

The directive instructs the browser on where to begin the gradient action. The gradient in the preceding code is linear, so you can begin at the top, bottom left, or right of the element. The following parameters specify the hexadecimal color codes (or predefined named colors like “red” or “green”) for each gradient point. It’s worth noting that your gradient action can have more than two colors.

The CSS code below creates a red-to-blue linear gradient that begins at the top of the div element.

div.gradient {

  background: linear-gradient(top, red, blue); 

 }

You can also specify whether the direction should be from left to right or from one corner to another. For example, the following CSS code is similar to the previous one, but the gradient in the first parameter moves from left to right.

div.gradient {

  Background: linear-gradient(to right, red, blue); 

 }

If you want to move the gradient from the top-left corner to the bottom-right corner, you’d use the following CSS 3 code.

div.gradient {

  background: linear-gradient(to bottom right, red, blue); 

 }

In addition, the linear gradient function is used in all three of the CSS classes listed above. As previously stated, you can also create radial or circular gradients. The only difference is that in your CSS code, you change “linear-gradient” to “radial-gradient.” The code below is an example.

div.gradient {

  background: radial-gradient(red, blue); 

 }

Finally, we discussed the new CSS 3 shadowing attribute. If you did any web design in the past, you probably remember creating images that gave you the ability to cast shadows. Images are no longer required, making web design much easier.

Shadowing is typically done on a button or div. The code below shows an example of a simple shadow CSS 3 class.

div.shadowbox {

    box-shadow: 5px 5px 2px #888888;

 }

The box-shadow property has four values, but only the first two are required. The first two values represent the shadow’s “size.” The horizontal shadow is represented by the first “5px” value. The vertical shadow is represented by the second “5px” value. The blur value is the third value. Higher blur values blur the shadow more, whereas lower blur values make the shadow more solid in color. The color of the shadow is specified by the hexadecimal color in the fourth value parameter. This specific color is a dark grey shadow.

Again, you must apply the CSS 3 class to your HTML after creating it. Which elements you can attach to the class are determined by the selector you use. The code below applies the new shadowbox class to a div element.

div style=”shadowbox”> This file contains my first HTML 5 and CSS 3 code. </p>

The new HTML elements and CSS 3 styles are ideal for making your web design more interactive and simple to create. You can replace old-style images in your designs with better CSS 3 classes. These three classes are some of the most common in CSS 3, but there are many more that can help you create better designs.

Setting Up Web Pages with CSS

This section will cover some basics of inserting CSS classes in your coding projects.

Understanding DocType

You’ve probably noticed a “doctype” tag if you’ve ever looked at HTML code in a browser or code editor. Technically, the doctype tag is not an HTML tag. The doctype tag, in fact, defines the type of HTML in the document. It’s a browser directive that tells browsers what version of HTML is used in the file. When you want to know what doctype must be used, this can be confusing for users and even developers. Search engines may also use the doctype directive (depending on the search engine), so make sure you use the correct one when creating your pages.

If you’re using the most recent HTML 5, the doctype is actually the simplest of all the previous versions. The HTML file below uses the standard HTML 5 doctype directive.

<!DOCTYPE html>

 <html>

<head>

<title>This is my first web page</title>

</head>

 <body>

 <p> this file contains my first HTML code. </p>

 </body>

</html>

The code above instructs browsers and search engines to use the HTML 5 engine. There are doctype attributes for all HTML versions, but you may need to use an engine that supports not only HTML 4 but also deprecated tags like the frame> tag. In that case, the following doctype would be appropriate.

<!DOCTYPE html public “-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN” “http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd”>

Using Inline CSS Styles

Many code generators do not generate additional CSS files. Instead, CSS styles are used directly in the HTML code by the code generators. You can create CSS styles directly in the HTML file’s head> tag by using the style> tag. While this is not the most efficient way to handle CSS styles, you may need to edit this code or insert a style directly into the HTML code in the future.

We can use the same styles as before. Assume we want to create a style for the p> tags in the document. Because you don’t have access to create an external CSS file, you must create the style within the HTML code itself. You can do this by using the style> tag. The following code is an example of inline CSS styling.

<!DOCTYPE html>

 <html>

<head>

<style>

p {

    color: red;

    text-align: center;

 }

</style>

<title>This is my first web page</title>

</head>

 <body>

 <p> in this file contains my first HTML code. </p>

 </body>

The above HTML code contains the style tag in the <head> section. This CSS class affects all <p> tags, so the content rendered from the user’s browser will be red and aligned in the center of the document.

Using External CSS Files

The preceding code will work in any browser that supports HTML 5 (remember the doctype), but you should keep your CSS styles in a separate file. What if you have the same style inserted directly into all of your HTML files and want to change it? You have no way of making global changes. You must manually change the styles within the style> tag in each HTML file. This can be time-consuming if you have hundreds or thousands of pages. Furthermore, you run the risk of missing a file, causing awkward styles to persist on certain pages while other pages with different, changed CSS styles do not.

The solution to this problem is to create a single CSS file within your HTML project and insert it into your HTML. When you make changes to one external file, the changes are reflected in all linked HTML files. In other words, you make a global change to the layout of your website in a single location. This type of coding makes redesigns much more efficient and reduces the likelihood of layout and design errors.

A CSS file contains only the classes. Because this is an HTML tag, there is no style> tag. You have only CSS classes. For example, the following code contains two styles that could be combined to form a CSS file.

p {

    color: red;

    text-align: center;

 }

div.shadowbox {

    box-shadow: 5px 5px 2px #888888;

 }

This text can be saved in a file called “styles.css,” which is the standard name for a website’s basic CSS styles. In some cases, you may be able to save the styles in a separate directory. Because you usually have more than one CSS file inserted into an HTML file, it’s best to keep your CSS files in a separate directory. After saving your file, you can insert it into your HTML files. The following code may look familiar, but this time the CSS “shadowbox” class is used in the div tag.

<!DOCTYPE html>

 <html>

<head>

<link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”/mystyles/styles.css”>

<title>This is my first web page</title>

</head>

 <body>

 <div class=”shadowbox”>This file contains my first HTML code. </div>

 </body>

</html>

First, the CSS file is in the “styles” directory, which is our CSS file directory. Following that, the div HTML tag invokes the “shadowbox” class that was created earlier. Although this style isn’t mentioned in the HTML code, it still applies to the div. This is because the browser uses the link tag to connect the CSS styles to the HTML page. You can use any CSS class from the “styles.css” file in your code.

You are not restricted to only using CSS files on your own website server. Because the CSS is rendered from data centers, using cloud files can be faster in some cases. This type of coding is typically used to speed up the rendering of a website, particularly when coding for mobile users. Data centers render files from the user’s closest geographical location, which speeds up your pages. In this case, you would link to a CSS file hosted on a cloud server, such as Google or Amazon.

The file will then be rendered to the browser alongside your website’s HTML by the cloud host. When you have a large number of CSS files, you should use cloud servers to improve performance.

Finally, it should be noted that CSS files have a “cascading order.” What happens if you have two styles for the same element by accident? The browser handles these errors in a specific order. Because the browser default is used first, it is dependent on the viewer’s browser. The external spreadsheet is then used, followed by the internal style sheet, and finally the inline style used in the style properties. This is critical when attempting to identify layout errors.

Understanding doctype declarations and linking CSS files are critical aspects of HTML and website design. When working with a large website, you will almost certainly have multiple CSS files. Keeping CSS classes in separate files in a separate directory will assist you in keeping your layout organized as well as identifying bugs in your layouts and designs.